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Radon is a colourless, odourless radioactive gas. The main danger from high radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer.
For most people, radon is the single largest source of radiation exposure whether they are at home or at work. PHE provides resources and advice about radon for the public, including individual householders, industry, education and research.
The UKradon website has more information about radon, including:. The PHE blog Public health matters includes radon. Added 'Radon: performance of basic protection in new homes'.
We have added 'Radon exposure: occupancy factors for UK homes' in the Guidance section. Research and analysis section updated: PHE intercomparison of passive radon detectors.
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Some level of radon will be found in all buildings. Radon mostly enters a building directly from the soil through the lowest level in the building that is in contact with the ground.
High levels of radon in the water supply can also increase indoor radon air levels. Typical entry points of radon into buildings are cracks in solid foundations and walls, construction joints, gaps in suspended floors and around service pipes, cavities inside walls, and the water supply.
Also, the concentration in one room of a building may be significantly different from the concentration in an adjoining room.
Most of the high radon concentrations have been reported from places near fault zones ; hence the existence of a relation between the exhalation rate from faults and indoor radon concentrations is obvious.
The distribution of radon concentrations will generally differ from room to room, and the readings are averaged according to regulatory protocols.
Indoor radon concentration is usually assumed to follow a lognormal distribution on a given territory.
Some of the highest radon hazard in the US is found in Iowa and in the Appalachian Mountain areas in southeastern Pennsylvania.
The second highest readings in Ireland were found in office buildings in the Irish town of Mallow, County Cork , prompting local fears regarding lung cancer.
In a few locations, uranium tailings have been used for landfills and were subsequently built on, resulting in possible increased exposure to radon.
Since radon is a colorless, odorless gas, the only way to know how much is present in the air or water is to perform tests.
In the US, radon test kits are available to the public at retail stores, such as hardware stores, for home use, and testing is available through licensed professionals, who are often home inspectors.
Efforts to reduce indoor radon levels are called radon mitigation. Radon is condensed by liquid nitrogen and purified from residue gases by sublimation.
Gaseous Rn half-life of about four days escapes from the capsule through diffusion. Radon trace concentration above oceans or in Antarctica can be lower than 0.
An earlyth-century form of quackery was the treatment of maladies in a radiotorium. The carcinogenic nature of radon due to its ionizing radiation became apparent later on.
Radon's molecule-damaging radioactivity has been used to kill cancerous cells,  but it does not increase the health of healthy cells.
The ionizing radiation causes the formation of free radicals , which results in cell damage , causing increased rates of illness, including cancer.
Exposure to radon has been suggested to mitigate autoimmune diseases such as arthritis in a process known as radiation hormesis. The practice is discouraged because of the well-documented ill effects of high-doses of radiation on the body.
Radium-rich springs are also used in traditional Japanese onsen in Misasa , Tottori Prefecture. Drinking therapy is applied in Bad Brambach , Germany.
In the US and Europe, there are several "radon spas", where people sit for minutes or hours in a high-radon atmosphere in the belief that low doses of radiation will invigorate or energize them.
Radon has been produced commercially for use in radiation therapy, but for the most part has been replaced by radionuclides made in particle accelerators and nuclear reactors.
Radon has been used in implantable seeds, made of gold or glass, primarily used to treat cancers, known as brachytherapy.
The gold seeds were produced by filling a long tube with radon pumped from a radium source, the tube being then divided into short sections by crimping and cutting.
The gold layer keeps the radon within, and filters out the alpha and beta radiations, while allowing the gamma rays to escape which kill the diseased tissue.
The activities might range from 0. Radon and its first decay products being very short-lived, the seed is left in place. At this stage, the predominant residual activity originates from the radon decay product Pb, whose half-life Radon emanation from the soil varies with soil type and with surface uranium content, so outdoor radon concentrations can be used to track air masses to a limited degree.
This fact has been put to use by some atmospheric scientists. Because of radon's rapid loss to air and comparatively rapid decay, radon is used in hydrologic research that studies the interaction between groundwater and streams.
Any significant concentration of radon in a stream is a good indicator that there are local inputs of groundwater. Radon soil-concentration has been used in an experimental way to map buried close-subsurface geological faults because concentrations are generally higher over the faults.
Some researchers have investigated changes in groundwater radon concentrations for earthquake prediction. For this reason, it has been hypothesized that increases in radon concentration is due to the generation of new cracks underground, which would allow increased groundwater circulation, flushing out radon.
The generation of new cracks might not unreasonably be assumed to precede major earthquakes. In the s and s, scientific measurements of radon emissions near faults found that earthquakes often occurred with no radon signal, and radon was often detected with no earthquake to follow.
It was then dismissed by many as an unreliable indicator. Radon is a known pollutant emitted from geothermal power stations because it is present in the material pumped from deep underground.
It disperses rapidly, and no radiological hazard has been demonstrated in various investigations. In addition, typical systems re-inject the material deep underground rather than releasing it at the surface, so its environmental impact is minimal.
In the s and '50s, radon was used for industrial radiography. Radon decay products have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as being carcinogenic to humans,  and as a gas that can be inhaled, lung cancer is a particular concern for people exposed to elevated levels of radon for sustained periods.
During the s and s, when safety standards requiring expensive ventilation in mines were not widely implemented,  radon exposure was linked to lung cancer among non-smoking miners of uranium and other hard rock materials in what is now the Czech Republic, and later among miners from the Southwestern US    and South Australia.
During this period, several entrepreneurs opened former uranium mines in the US to the general public and advertised alleged health benefits from breathing radon gas underground.
Health benefits claimed included pain, sinus, asthma and arthritis relief,   but these were proven to be false and the government banned such advertisements in Since that time, ventilation and other measures have been used to reduce radon levels in most affected mines that continue to operate.
In recent years, the average annual exposure of uranium miners has fallen to levels similar to the concentrations inhaled in some homes.
This has reduced the risk of occupationally induced cancer from radon, although health issues may persist for those who are currently employed in affected mines and for those who have been employed in them in the past.
Residues from processing of uranium ore can also be a source of radon. Radon resulting from the high radium content in uncovered dumps and tailing ponds can be easily released into the atmosphere and affect people living in the vicinity.
In addition to lung cancer, researchers have theorized a possible increased risk of leukemia due to radon exposure.
Empirical support from studies of the general population is inconsistent, and a study of uranium miners found a correlation between radon exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Miners as well as milling and ore transportation workers who worked in the uranium industry in the US between the s and may be eligible for compensation under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act RECA.
Surviving relatives may also apply in cases where the formerly employed person is deceased. It should be highlighted though that not only uranium mines are affected by elevated levels of radon.
Coal mines in particular are affected as well since coal may contain more uranium and thorium than commercially operational uranium mines.
Radon exposure mostly radon daughters has been linked to lung cancer in numerous case-control studies performed in the US, Europe and China.
There are approximately 21, deaths per year in the US due to radon-induced lung cancers. North American and European pooled analyses further support these findings.
Most models of residential radon exposure are based on studies of miners, and direct estimates of the risks posed to homeowners would be more desirable.
Radon has been considered the second leading cause of lung cancer and leading environmental cause of cancer mortality by the EPA.
The greatest risk of radon exposure arises in buildings that are airtight, insufficiently ventilated, and have foundation leaks that allow air from the soil into basements and dwelling rooms.
A national reference level should not be a limit, but should represent the maximum acceptable annual average radon concentration in a dwelling.
Results from epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of lung cancer increases with exposure to residential radon.
A well known example of source of error is smoking, the main risk factor for lung cancer. According to the EPA, the risk of lung cancer for smokers is significant due to synergistic effects of radon and smoking.
For this population about 62 people in a total of 1, will die of lung cancer compared to 7 people in a total of 1, for people who have never smoked.
Radon, like other known or suspected external risk factors for lung cancer, is a threat for smokers and former smokers.
This was demonstrated by the European pooling study. The risk is from smoking, compounded by a synergistic effect of radon for smokers.
Without smoking, the effect seems to be so small as to be insignificant. According to the European pooling study, there is a difference in risk for the histological subtypes of lung cancer and radon exposure.
Small-cell lung carcinoma , which has a high correlation with smoking, have a higher risk after radon exposure.
For other histological subtypes such as adenocarcinoma , the type that primarily affects non-smokers, the risk from radon appears to be lower.
A study of radiation from post- mastectomy radiotherapy shows that the simple models previously used to assess the combined and separate risks from radiation and smoking need to be developed.
A study from , which included non-smokers and a control group of non-smokers, showed that exposure to radon increased the risk of lung cancer in non-smokers.
The group that had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the home appeared to have a much higher risk, while those who were not exposed to passive smoking did not show any increased risk with increasing radon exposure.
The risk associated with ingestion was considered almost negligible. As well as being ingested through drinking water, radon is also released from water when temperature is increased, pressure is decreased and when water is aerated.
Optimum conditions for radon release and exposure occurred during showering. There are relatively simple tests for radon gas.
In some countries these tests are methodically done in areas of known systematic hazards. Radon detection devices are commercially available.
Digital radon detectors provide ongoing measurements giving both daily, weekly, short-term and long-term average readouts via a digital display.
Short-term radon test devices used for initial screening purposes are inexpensive, in some cases free. There are important protocols for taking short-term radon tests and it is imperative that they be strictly followed.
The kit includes a collector that the user hangs in the lowest habitable floor of the house for two to seven days.
The user then sends the collector to a laboratory for analysis. Long term kits, taking collections for up to one year or more, are also available.
An open-land test kit can test radon emissions from the land before construction begins. Radon levels fluctuate naturally, due to factors like transient weather conditions, so an initial test might not be an accurate assessment of a home's average radon level.
Radon levels are at a maximum during the coolest part of the day when pressure differentials are greatest.
Because the half-life of radon is only 3. Another method of reducing radon levels is to modify the building's ventilation. Generally, the indoor radon concentrations increase as ventilation rates decrease.
The four principal ways of reducing the amount of radon accumulating in a house are:  . According to the EPA,  the method to reduce radon " Generally indoor radon can be mitigated by sub-slab depressurization and exhausting such radon-laden air to the outdoors, away from windows and other building openings.
Soil suction, for example, prevents radon from entering your home by drawing the radon from below the home and venting it through a pipe, or pipes, to the air above the home where it is quickly diluted" and the "EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently".
Positive-pressure ventilation systems can be combined with a heat exchanger to recover energy in the process of exchanging air with the outside, and simply exhausting basement air to the outside is not necessarily a viable solution as this can actually draw radon gas into a dwelling.
Homes built on a crawl space may benefit from a radon collector installed under a "radon barrier" a sheet of plastic that covers the crawl space.
A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. This form of soil suction is called submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective way to reduce radon levels in crawl space homes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Radon disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of radon.
See also: Radium and radon in the environment. Main article: Radioactive quackery. Main article: Health effects of radon.
Main article: Radon mitigation. Chemistry portal. Public Health Service, In collaboration with U.
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